International Financial Reporting Standards


Push down accounting is a convention of accounting for the purchase

Financial instruments – Introducing IFRS 9


IFRS covers a wide range of accounting activities. There are certain aspects of business practice for which IFRS set mandatory rules. In addition to these basic reports, a company must also give a summary of its accounting policies. The full report is often seen side by side with the previous report, to show the changes in profit and loss. A parent company must create separate account reports for each of its subsidiary companies.

For example, IFRS is not as strict on defining revenue and allow companies to report revenue sooner, so consequently, a balance sheet under this system might show a higher stream of revenue than GAAP's.

FIFO means that the most recent inventory is left unsold until older inventory is sold; LIFO means that the most recent inventory is the first to be sold. IFRS originated in the European Union, with the intention of making business affairs and accounts accessible across the continent.

The idea quickly spread globally, as a common language allowed greater communication worldwide. Although only a portion of the world uses IFRS, participating countries are spread all over the world, rather than being confined to one geographic region.

The goal with IFRS is to make international comparisons as easy as possible. This is difficult because, to a large extent, each country has its own set of rules. Reserve Bank of India has stated that financial statements of banks need to be IFRS-compliant for periods beginning on or after 1 April Phase wise applicability details for different companies in India:.

According to the press note issued by the government, those companies will convert their first balance sheet as of 1 April , applying accounting standards convergent with IFRS if the accounting year ends on 31 March.

This implies that the transition date will be 1 April According to the earlier plan, the transition date was fixed at 1 April The press note does not clarify whether the full set of financial statements for the year —12 will be prepared by applying accounting standards convergent with IFRS. The deferment of the transition may make companies happy, but it will undermine India's position. Presumably, lack of preparedness of Indian companies has led to the decision to defer the adoption of IFRS for a year.

This is unfortunate that India, which boasts for its IT and accounting skills, could not prepare itself for the transition to IFRS over last four years.

But that might be the ground reality. Transition to IFRS in phases is a smart move. The transition cost for smaller companies will be much lower because large companies will bear the initial cost of learning and smaller companies will not be required to reinvent the wheel.

However, this will happen only if a significant number of large companies engage Indian accounting firms to provide them support in their transition to IFRS. If, most large companies, which will comply with Indian accounting standards convergent with IFRS in the first phase, choose one of the international firms, Indian accounting firms and smaller companies will not benefit from the learning in the first phase of the transition to IFRS.

It is likely that international firms will protect their learning to retain their competitive advantage. Therefore, it is for the benefit of the country that each company makes judicious choice of the accounting firm as its partner without limiting its choice to international accounting firms. Public sector companies should take the lead and the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India ICAI should develop a clear strategy to diffuse the learning. Size of companies The government has decided to measure the size of companies in terms of net worth.

This is not the ideal unit to measure the size of a company. Net worth in the balance sheet is determined by accounting principles and methods. Therefore, it does not include the value of intangible assets. Moreover, as most assets and liabilities are measured at historical cost, the net worth does not reflect the current value of those assets and liabilities. Market capitalisation is a better measure of the size of a company.

But it is difficult to estimate market capitalisation or fundamental value of unlisted companies. This might be the reason that the government has decided to use 'net worth' to measure size of companies. Some companies, which are large in terms of fundamental value or which intend to attract foreign capital, might prefer to use Indian accounting standards convergent with IFRS earlier than required under the road map presented by the government.

The government should provide that choice. The minister for Financial Services in Japan announced in late June that mandatory application of the IFRS should not take place from fiscal year-ending March ; five to seven years should be required for preparation if mandatory application is decided; and to permit the use of U. GAAP beyon the fiscal year ending 31 March Montenegro gained independence from Serbia in It has issued Nepal Financial Reporting Standards in The version of standards almost resembles IFRS with slight modification.

Effective for the annual periods beginning on or after 1 January The government of Russia has been implementing a program to harmonize its national accounting standards with IFRS since Since then twenty new accounting standards were issued by the Ministry of Finance of the Russian Federation aiming to align accounting practices with IFRS.

Since all commercial banks have been obliged to prepare financial statements in accordance with both Russian accounting standards and IFRS. They notably include the booking of reserves for bad debts and contingent liabilities and the devaluation of inventory and financial assets.

Still, several differences between the two sets of account still remain. Before a standard is enacted, consultations with the IASB are made to ensure consistency of core principles. All companies listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange have been required to comply with the requirements of International Financial Reporting Standards since 1 January The IFRS for SMEs may be applied by 'limited interest companies', as defined in the South African Corporate Laws Amendment Act of that is, they are not 'widely held' , if they do not have public accountability that is, not listed and not a financial institution.

They should also disclose the related information from 2 years prior to adoption, as follows:. The new Commercial Code came into force in The Public Oversight Authority is the only authorized board regarding auditing and financial reporting standards.

Many researchers have studied the effects of IFRS adoption, and there are debates on whether the effects can be attributed solely to IFRS mandate adoption.

For example, one study [62] uses data from 26 countries to study the economic consequences of mandatory IFRS adoption. It shows that, on average, even though market liquidity increases around the time of the introduction of IFRS, it is unclear whether IFRS mandate adoption is the sole reason of observed market effects.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Financial Internal Firms Report. Accountants Accounting organizations Luca Pacioli. Applicability of the concept of financial capital maintenance defined in constant purchasing power units.

Archived from the original PDF on 21 May Retrieved 26 July Convergence means that the U. More convergence will make adoption easier and less costly and may even make adoption of IFRS unnecessary. Supporters of adoption, however, believe that convergence alone will never eliminate all of the differences between the two sets of standards. The key players are the Securities and Exchange Commission, which is responsible for the supervision and regulation of the securities industry and has oversight responsibility for the FASB; the Financial Accounting Standards Board, an independent body that establishes and interprets U.

Back to Top Have any major U. Until the Securities and Exchange Commission issues a rule allowing or requiring U. Several large multinational corporations, however, have started using IFRS for their foreign subsidiaries where allowed by local law. IFRS also contains limited industry-specific guidance. Yet significant differences do remain, most any one of which can result in significantly different reported results, depending on a company's industry and individual facts and circumstances.

GAAP, making write-downs more likely. GAAP generally requires development costs to be expensed as incurred, except for costs related to the development of computer software, for which capitalization is required once certain criteria are met. Conversion to IFRS is much more than an accounting exercise. It will affect many aspects of a U. As IFRS grows in acceptance, most CPAs, financial statement preparers and auditors will have to become knowledgeable about the international standards. Others, such as actuaries and valuation experts who are engaged by management to assist in measuring certain assets and liabilities, are not currently taught IFRS and will have to undertake comprehensive training.