Theta State is the state of the subconscious mind. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research. During the Cenozoic climatic cooling, the Antarctic Peninsula was the last region of Antarctica to have been fully glaciated according to current research. The developer is not responsible for any side effects that may occur from the use of this app. The Antarctic Peninsula and Cape Horn create a funneling effect, which channels the winds into the relatively narrow Drake Passage.
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This dispute was resolved by making Graham Land the part of the Antarctic Peninsula northward of a line between Cape Jeremy and Cape Agassiz ; and Palmer Land the part southward of that line. It officially also refers to this as Tierra de San Martín , and Argentina has more bases and personnel there than any other nation. The s saw a marked increase in the number of research bases as Britain, Chile and Argentina competed to make claims over the same area.
Since the peninsula has the mildest climate in Antarctica, the highest concentration of research stations on the continent can be found there, or on the many nearby islands, and it is the part of Antarctica most often visited by tour vessels and yachts. Today, on the Antarctic Peninsula there are many abandoned scientific and military bases.
Ice core and sediment samples from the peninsula are valuable because events such as the Little Ice Age can be verified with samples from other continents. Tourism to the Antarctic Peninsula began in the s. Most ship-based tourists depart for the peninsula from Ushuaia in Argentina. In November , the MV Explorer rammed submerged sea ice and then sank after water from a fist sized hole could not be pumped out quickly enough.
All passengers and crew were safely evacuated and rescued. These mountains are considered to be a continuation of the Andes of South America , with a submarine spine or ridge connecting the two. The Scotia Arc is the island arc system that links the mountains of the Antarctic Peninsula to those of Tierra del Fuego. There are various volcanoes in the islands around the Antarctic Peninsula.
This volcanism is related to extensional tectonics in Bransfield Rift to the west and Larsen Rift to the east. The landscape of the peninsula is typical Antarctic tundra. The peninsula has a sharp elevation gradient, with glaciers flowing into the Larsen Ice Shelf , which experienced significant breakup in The Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf lies to the east of the peninsula. Islands along the peninsula are mostly ice-covered and connected to the land by pack ice. The Lemaire Channel is a popular destination for tourist cruise ships that visit Antarctica.
Further to the west lies the Bellingshausen Sea and in the north is the Scotia Sea. The Antarctic Peninsula and Cape Horn create a funneling effect, which channels the winds into the relatively narrow Drake Passage. Near the tip at Hope Bay is Sheppard Point. The part of the peninsula extending northeastwards from a line connecting Cape Kater to Cape Longing is called the Trinity Peninsula. Brown Bluff is a rare tuya and Sheppard Nunatak is found here also.
On the east coast is the Athene Glacier ; the Arctowski and Akerlundh Nunataks are both just off the east coast. Also located here are the Scaife Mountains. The Eternity Range is found in the middle of the peninsula.
Other geographical features include Avery Plateau , the twin towers of Una's Peaks. Because the Antarctic Peninsula, which reaches north of the Antarctic Circle , is the most northerly part of Antarctica, it has the mildest climates within this continent. The colder temperatures of the southeast, Weddell Sea side, of the Antarctic Peninsula are reflected in the persistence of ice shelves that cling to the eastern side.
Precipitation varies greatly within the Antarctic Peninsula. A good portion of this precipitation falls as rain during the summer, on two-thirds of the days of the year, and with little seasonal variation in amounts. Because of issues concerning global climate change, the Antarctic Peninsula and adjacent parts of the Weddell Sea and its Pacific continental shelf have been the subject of intensive geologic, paleontologic, and paleoclimatic research by interdisciplinary and multinational groups over the last several decades.
The combined study of the glaciology of its ice sheet and the paleontology , sedimentology , stratigraphy , structural geology , and volcanology of glacial and nonglacial deposits of the Antarctic Peninsula has allowed the reconstruction of the paleoclimatology and prehistoric ice sheet fluctuation of it for over the last million years.
This research shows the dramatic changes in climate, which have occurred within this region after it reached its approximate position within the Antarctic Circle during the Cretaceous Period. The Fossil Bluff Group , which outcrops within Alexander Island , provides a detailed record, which includes paleosols and fossil plants, of Middle Cretaceous Albian terrestrial climates.
The sediments that form the Fossil Bluff Group accumulated within a volcanic island arc , which now forms the bedrock backbone of the Antarctic Peninsula, in prehistoric floodplains and deltas and offshore as submarine fans and other marine sediments.
As reflected in the plant fossils, paleosols, and climate models, the climate was warm, humid, and seasonally dry. According to climate models, the summers were dry and winters were wet. The rivers were perennial and subject to intermittent flooding as the result of heavy rainfall. Warm high-latitude climates reached a peak during the mid-Late Cretaceous Cretaceous Thermal Maximum.
Plant fossils found within the Late Cretaceous Coniacian and Santonian -early Campanian strata of the Hidden Lake and Santa Maria formations, which outcrop within James Ross , Seymour , and adjacent islands, indicate that this emergent volcanic island arc enjoyed warm temperate or subtropical climates with adequate moisture for growth and without extended periods of below freezing winter temperatures. After the peak warmth of the Cretaceous thermal maximum the climate, both regionally and globally, appears to have cooled as seen in the Antarctic fossil wood record.
Later, warm high-latitude climates returned to the Antarctic Peninsula region during the Paleocene and early Eocene as reflected in fossil plants. Abundant plant and marine fossils from Paleogene marine sediments that outcrop on Seymour Island indicate the presence of cool and moist, high-latitudes environment during the early Eocene. Detailed studies of the paleontology, sedimentology, and stratigraphy of glacial and nonglacial deposits within the Antarctic Peninsula and adjacent parts of the Weddell Sea and its Pacific continental shelf have found that it has become progressively glaciated as the climate of Antarctica dramatically and progressively cooled during the last 37 million years.
This progressive cooling was contemporaneous with a reduction in atmospheric CO 2 concentrations. During this climatic cooling, the Antarctic Peninsula was probably the last region of Antarctica to have been fully glaciated. The transition from temperate, alpine glaciation to a dynamic ice sheet occurred about At this time, the Antarctic Peninsula formed as the bedrock islands underlying it were overridden and joined together by an ice sheet in the early Pliocene about 5.
During the Quaternary period, the size of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet has fluctuated in response to glacial—interglacial cycles. During glacial epochs, this ice sheet was significantly thicker than it is currently and extended to the edge of the continental shelves. During interglacial epochs, the West Antarctica Ice Sheet was thinner than during glacial epochs and its margins lay significantly inland of the continental margins.
During the Last Glacial Maximum , about 20, to 18, years ago, the ice sheet covering the Antarctic Peninsula was significantly thicker than it is now.
Except for a few isolated nunataks , the Antarctic Peninsula and its associated islands were completely buried by the ice sheet.
In addition, the ice sheet extended past the present shoreline onto the Pacific outer continental shelf and completely filled the Weddell Sea up to the continental margin with grounded ice. The deglaciation of the Antarctic Peninsula largely occurred between 18, and 6, years ago as an interglacial climate was established in the region.
It initially started about 18, to 14, years ago with retreat of the ice sheet from the Pacific outer continental shelf and the continental margin within the Weddell Sea. Within the Weddell Sea, the transition from grounded ice to a floating ice shelf occurred about 10, years ago. The deglaciation of some locations within the Antarctic Peninsula continued until 4, to 3, years ago. Within the Antarctic Peninsula, an interglacial climatic optimum occurred about 3, to 5, years ago.
After the climate optimum, a distinct climate cooling, which lasted until historic times, occurred. The Antarctic Peninsula is a part of the world that is experiencing extraordinary warming. The coasts of the peninsula have the mildest climate in Antarctica and moss and lichen -covered rocks are free of snow during the summer months, although the weather is still intensely cold and the growing season very short. The plant life today is mainly mosses, lichens and algae adapted to this harsh environment, with lichens preferring the wetter areas of the rocky landscape.
The most common lichens are Usnea and Bryoria species. Antarctica's two flowering plant species, the Antarctic hair grass Deschampsia antarctica and Antarctic pearlwort Colobanthus quitensis are found on the northern and western parts of the Antarctic Peninsula, including offshore islands, where the climate is relatively mild. Lagotellerie Island in Marguerite Bay is an example of this habitat.
Antarctic krill are found in the seas surrounding the peninsula and the rest of the continent. The crabeater seal spends most of its life in the same waters feeding on krill. Bald notothen is a cryopelagic fish that lives in sub-zero water temperatures around the peninsula. Vocalizations of the sei whale can be heard emanating from the waters surrounding the Antarctic Peninsula. The animals of Antarctica live on food they find in the sea—not on land—and include seabirds , seals and penguins.
Penguin species found on the peninsula, especially near the tip and surrounding islands, include the chinstrap penguin , emperor penguin , gentoo penguin and the Adelie penguin. Petermann Island is the world's southernmost colony of gentoo penguins. The user does not need to focus on the affirmations.
The affirmations will directly work on the subconscious mind and help to activate the chakras. The chakras are energy centers in the energy body. Each Chakra controls certain aspects of human life.
This app contains isochronic tones at 4Hz to help achieve the Theta State. The Theta State is the state where the predominant brainwaves are the Theta waves. Theta State is the state of the subconscious mind. This app is supported by advertisements. Chakra Activator is the paid version of this app. It is free of ads. It is available on the following link https: This app is not a medically prescribed product. It is for spiritual and healing guidance purposes only. The effects of this app may vary from person to person.
The developer is not responsible for any side effects that may occur from the use of this app.